📘 Atomic operations in Perl 6

📘 Atomic operations in Raku

N. B. Perl 6 has been renamed to Raku. Click to read more.

Using the solution for Task 38, the Monte Carlo method, create a program that calculates the result using multiple threads.

Perl 6 has built-in support for parallel computing. In Task 92, Sleep Sort, we’ve seen how to use the keywords awaitgather, and take to spawn a few threads and wait for them to finish. 

When different threads want to modify the same variable, such as a counter, it is wise to introduce atomic operations to make sure the threads do not interfere with each other. Here is the modification of the Monte Carlo program calculating the area of a circle with four parallel threads.

my atomicint $inside = 0;

my $n = 5000;
my $p = 4;

await gather for 1..$p {
    take start {
        for 1..$n {
            my @point = map {2.rand - 1}, 1..2;
            $inside⚛++ if sqrt([+] map *², @point) <= 1;

say 4 * $inside / $p / $n;

Run the program a few times, changing the value of $n (the number of random points per thread) and $p (the number of threads). The program should print the value that is close to pi, such as 3.141524.

The new thing here is the atomic increment operation:


An atomic operation ensures that the variable is modified with no conflicts between the threads.

The variable itself should be a native integer of a special type—notice how it is declared:

my atomicint $inside;

As the atomic operation uses the Unicode character, there is an ASCII alternative:


Here’s a list of other atomic operations and their synonyms that can be used with parallel processes:

$var ⚛= $value       atomic-assign($var, $value)
my $a = ⚛$var         my $a = atomic-fetch($var)

$var⚛++               atomic-fetch-inc($var)
$var⚛--               atomic-fetch-dec($var)
++⚛$var               atomic-inc-fetch($var)
--⚛$var               atomic-dec-fetch($var)

$var ⚛+= $value       atomic-fetch-add($var, $value)
$var ⚛-= $value       atomic-fetch-dec($var, $value)

N. B. The code in this task works with the Rakudo Perl 6 compiler starting from version 2017.09. Earlier versions do not support atomic operators.

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